In PHP, string operators, such as the concatenation operator (.) and its assignment variant (.=), are employed for manipulating and concatenating strings in PHP. This entails combining two or more strings. The concatenation assignment operator (.=) is particularly useful for appending the right operand to the left operand.

Let’s explore these operators in more detail:

Concatenation Operator (.)

The concatenation operator (.) is utilized to combine two strings. Here’s an example:

$greeting = "Hello ";
$name = "John";
$message = $greeting . $name;
echo $message; // Outputs "Hello John"

You can concatenate more than two strings by chaining multiple concatenation operations.

Let’s take a look at another pattern of the concatenation operator, specifically the concatenation assignment operator.

Concatenation Assignment Operator (.=)

The .= operator is a shorthand assignment operator that concatenates the right operand to the left operand and assigns the result to the left operand. This is particularly useful for building strings incrementally:

$greeting = "Hello "; 
$greeting .= "John"; 
echo $greeting; // Outputs "Hello John"

This is equivalent to $greeting = $greeting . " World!";.

Let’s see some examples

Examples of Concatenating Strings in PHP

Here are some more advanced examples demonstrating the use of both the concatenation operator (.) and the concatenation assignment operator (.=) in PHP:

Concatenation Operator (.):


$greeting = "Hello";
$name = "John";
$age = 25;

$message = $greeting . " " . $name . "! You are " . $age . " years old.";

echo $message;
// Output: Hello John! You are 25 years old.


In this example, the . operator is used to concatenate multiple strings and variables into a single string.

Concatenation Assignment Operator (.=):

$paragraph = "This is a paragraph. ";
$paragraph .= "It continues with more information. ";
$paragraph .= "And it keeps growing.";

echo $paragraph;
Output: This is a paragraph. 
It continues with more information. 
And it keeps growing.

Here, the .= operator is used to append additional text to the existing string in the $paragraph variable. It is a convenient way to build up a string gradually.

Concatenation Within Iterations:

You can also use concatenation within iterations to build strings dynamically. Here’s an example using a loop to concatenate numbers from 1 to 5:


$result = '';

for ($i = 1; $i <= 5; $i++) {
    $result .= "Number " . $i . ", ";

// Remove the trailing comma and space
$result = rtrim($result, ', ');

echo $result;
// Output: Number 1, Number 2, Number 3, Number 4, Number 5


In this example, the .= operator is used within the for loop to concatenate the current number and a string to the existing $result string. The loop iterates from 1 to 5, building the final string. The rtrim function is then used to remove the trailing comma and space.

You can adapt this concept to various scenarios where you need to dynamically build strings within loops, such as constructing lists, sentences, or any other formatted output.

These examples showcase how you can use string concatenation operators in PHP to create more complex strings by combining variables, literals, iterations and other strings.

Let’s summarize it.

Wrapping Up

PHP provides powerful string operators that are essential for manipulating and concatenating strings. The primary concatenation operator (.) allows for the seamless combination of strings, while the concatenation assignment operator (.=) provides a convenient means of appending content to existing strings.

This versatility is demonstrated through various examples, including simple concatenation operations, the use of concatenation assignment for gradual string construction, and dynamic string building within iterations.

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